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Fire Safety Research for Better Building Design

Publications

Seminar Publications

 

Construction Technology Updates

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Design Fires

Babrauskas, V. and Grayson, S. J. ed. 1992. Heat release in fires. Elsevier.

Babrauskas, V. 1996. "Fire modeling tools for fire safety engineering - Are they good enough?" Journal of Fire Protection Engineering vol 8 no 2, pp. 87-96.

Babrauskas V. 1999. "Performance-based fire safety engineering design: The role of fire models and fire tests". Interflam 1999: 8th International Fire Science and Engineering Conference, Edinburgh, Scotland, pp. 799-807.

Bwalya, A. C., N. Bénichou, and M.A. Sultan 2003. Literature Review on Design Fires (Research Report - National Research Council Canada, Institute for Research in Construction, no 137) 31 pp.

Bwalya, A. C. 2004. An Extended Survey of Combustible Contents in Canadian Residential Living Rooms. (Research Report - National Research Council Canada, Institute for Research in Construction, no. 176) 25 pp.

Bwalya, A. C., M.A. Sultan, and N. Bénichou 2004. A Pilot Survey of Fire Loads in Canadian Homes. (Research Report - National Research Council Canada, Institute for Research in Construction, no 159) 24 pp.

Bwalya, A. C., M.A. Sultan, and N. Bénichou 2004. "Towards the development of design fires for residential buildings: literature review and survey results of fire loads in Canadian homes" Interflam 2004: 10th International Fire Science and Engineering Conference, Edinburgh, Scotland, pp. 531-536.

Bwalya, A. C., E. Zalok and G.V. Hadjisophocleous 2006. Design Fires for Commercial Premises - Results of Phase I, (Research Report, National Research Council Canada, Institute for Research in Construction, no 868) 68 pp.

Bwalya, A. C., E. Zalok, and G.V. Hadjisophocleous 2007. Design Fires for Commercial Premises - Results of Phase II (Research Report, National Research Council Canada, Institute for Research in Construction,, 236) 68 pp.

Chow, W. K., G. Zou, H. Dong and Y. Gaw 2003. "Necessity of carrying out full-scale burning tests for post-flashover retail shop fires" International Journal on Engineering Performance-Based Fire Codes vol 5 no 1, pp.20-27.

Cohn, B. M. 1996. "The Characterization and use of design basis fires in performance codes" Interflam 1996: 7th International Fire Science and Engineering Conference, Cambridge, UK, pp. 581-588.

Feasey, R. and A. Buchanan 2002. "Post-flashover fires for structural design" Fire Safety Journal vol 37, pp. 83-105.

Gemeny, D. F. and N.B. Wittasek 1999. "Fire test data for design fires: A perspective from one practitioner" ASTM's Role in Performance-Base Fire Codes and Standards (American Society for Testing and Materials STP 1377), pp. 47-57.

Hadjisophocleous, G.V. and E. Zalok 2003. "A Survey of fire loads in commercial floors of office buildings" Fourth International Seminar on Fire and Explosion Hazards, Londonderry, Northern Ireland

Hadjisophocleous, G.V. and E. Zalok 2004. "Development of design fires for commercial buildings". Fire Safety Engineering Conference - Issues and Solutions, Sydney, Australia

Hadjisophocleous, G.V. and E. Zalok 2004. "Fire loads and design fires for commercial buildings Interflam 2004: 10th International Fire Science and Engineering Conference, Edinburgh, Scotland, vol 1, pp. 435-446.

Höglander, K. and B. Sundström 1997. Design fires for pre-flashover fires (SP Report 1997:36) Swedish National Testing and Research Institute, Boras, Sweden.

International Organization for Standardization 1999. Fire Safety Engineering - Part 1: Application of fire performance concepts to design objectives (ISO/TR 13387-1:1999(E))

International Organization for Standardization 1999. Fire Safety Engineering - Part 2: Design fire scenarios and design fires.(ISO/TR 13387-2:1999(E))

International Organization for Standardization 1999. Fire Safety Engineering - Part 3: Assessment and verification of mathematical fire models (ISO/TR 13387-3:1999(E))

International Organization for Standardization, 1999. Fire Safety Engineering - Part 4: Initiation and Development of Fire and Generation of Fire Effluents. (ISO/TR 13387-4:1999(E))

Janssens, M.L., 1991. "Measuring rate of heat release by oxygen consumption" Fire Technology vol 27 no 3, pp.234-235.

Klote, J. H. 2002. "Design fires: What you need to know" HPAC Engineering, vol 74 no 9 pp. 43-51.

Mehaffey, J. R. 1999. Performance-based design for fire resistance in wood-frame buildings. Interflam 1999: 8th International Fire Science and Engineering Conference, Edinburgh, Scotland, pp. 293-304.

National Fire Protection Association and Society for Fire Prorection Engineering 2000. The SFPE Engineering Guide to Performance-Based Fire Protection Analysis and Design of Buildings National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA, USA.

Olenick, S. M. and D.J. Carpenter 2003. "An updated international survey of computer models for fire and smoke" Journal of Fire Protection Engineering vol 12 no 2, pp. 87-110.

Purser, D. A., 2000. "Toxic product yields and hazard assessment for fully enclosed design fires" Polymer International vol 49, pp. 1232-1255.

Society for Fire Protection Engineering 2002. The SFPE handbook of fire protection engineering, 3rd Edition

Zalok, E., A. Bwalya and G.V.Hadisophocleous 2005. "Medium-scale fire experiments of commercial premises" Fire and Materials Conference, San Francisco, CA.

Zalok, E. 2006. Design Fires for Commercial Premises Carleton University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Ph.D. Thesis.

Smoke Management and Control

General

Klote, J.H. and J.A. Milke 2002. Principles of Smoke Management American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, GA

Lougheed, G.D.,2004. "Smoke management research at NRC" Proceedings of the Joint NSC-NRC Workshop on Construction Technologies, Taipei, Taiwan, pp. 99-106.

Tamura, G.T. 1994. Smoke Movement & Control in High-rise Buildings National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA

Standards

National Fire Protection Association 2005. Standard for Smoke Management Systems in Malls, Atria, and Large Spaces (NFPA 92B)

National Fire Protection Association 2006. Standard for Smoke-Control Systems Utilizing Barriers and Pressure Differences (NFPA 92A,)

Tenability

Jin, T. 2002. "Visibility and human behavior in fire smoke" The SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA.

Purser, D.A. 2002. "Toxicity assessment of combustion products" The SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA.

Duct Detectors

National Electrical Manufacturer's Association 2006. "Duct smoke detection" Fire Protection Engineering no 30, Spring, pp. 56-58.

National Electrical Manufacturer's Association 2006. "The Efficacy of duct smoke detection" Fire Protection Engineering no 29, Winter, pp. 52-53.

Research Publications

Sprinklered Fires

Lougheed , G.D.1997. "Expected size of shielded fires in sprinklered office buildings" ASHRAE Transactions, vol 103 pt 1 , pp. 395-410.

Lougheed, G.D., C. McCartney and B.C.Taber 2000. "Smoke movement for sprinklered fires" ASHRAE Transactions, vol 106 pt 1, pp. 605-619.

Lougheed, G.D., C. McCartney and B.C.Taber 2001. "Sprinklered mercantile fires" ASHRAE Transactions, vol 107, pt 1, pp. 730-743.

Atrium Smoke Management

Lougheed, G.D., G.V. Hadjisophocleous and S. Cao 1999. "Numerical study of the effectiveness of atrium smoke exhaust systems" ASHRAE Transactions vol 105, pt 1, pp. 699-715.

Lougheed, G.D., G.V. Hadjisophocleous, C. McCartney and B.C. Taber 1999. "Large-scale physical model studies for an atrium smoke exhaust system" ASHRAE Transactions vol 105, pt 1, pp. 676-698.

Lougheed, G.D. and G.V. Hadjisophocleous, 2001. "The Smoke hazard from a fire in high spaces" ASHRAE Transactions vol 107 pt. 1, pp. 720-729.

Lougheed, G.D.and G.V. Hadjisophocleous 2001. "Smoke hazards from fires in high places" ASHRAE Journal vol 43 no 6, pp. 34-46.

McCartney, C., G.D. Lougheed and E.J. Weckman 2004, "CFD investigation of balcony spill plumes in atria" 12th Annual Conference of the Computational Fluid Dynamics Society of Canada, Ottawa, ON, pp. 823-830.

McCartney, C., G.D. Lougheed and E.J. Weckman 2005. "CFD investigation of balcony spill plumes in atria (Part II)" 13th Annual Conference of the Computational Fluid Dynamics Society of Canada, St. John's, NL, pp. 1-7.

Fire alarms, occupant response and evacuation

Averill, J.D., D.S. Mileti, R.D. Peacock, E.D. Kuligowski, N. Groner, G. Proulx, P.A. Reneke and H.E. Nelson 2005. Federal Building and Fire Safety Investigation of the World Trade Center Disaster : Occupant Behavior, Egress, and Emergency Communications September 01, 2005 (NIST NCSTAR 1-7)

Duval, F.R. 2006. NFPA Case Study: Nightclub Fires National Fire Protection Association, Quincy MA.

Fahy, F.R. and G. Proulx 1995. "Collective common sense: A study of human behavior during the World Trade Center evacuation" NFPA Journal vol 9 no 2, March/April 1995, pp. 59-67.

Fahy, R.F. and G. Proulx 2001. "Toward creating a database on delay times to start evacuation and walking speeds for use in evacuation modeling" Second International Symposium on Human Behaviour in Fire, Boston, MA., pp. 175-183.

Proulx, G. and D.J. Sime 1991. "To prevent 'panic' in an underground emergency: Why not tell people the truth?" Third International Symposium on Fire Safety Science Edinburgh, Scotland, pp. 843-852.

Proulx, G, and J. Pineau 1996. Review of Evacuation Strategies for Occupants with Disabilities (Internal Report - National, Research Council Canada, Institute for Research in Construction, no 712) 19 pp.

Proulx, G., M.J. Ouellette, P. Leroux, and K.R. Bailey 1998. Study of the Occupant's Behavior during the Ambleside Fire in Ottawa on January 31, 1997  (Internal Report - National Research Council Canada, Institute for Research in Construction, no 771) 42 pp.

Proulx, G. 1999. Occupant response during a residential highrise fire Fire and Materials vol 23 no 6, pp. 317-323.

Proulx, G. 1999. Study of occupant behaviour following a residential high-rise fire provides crucial information Construction Innovation, vol 4 no 3 pp. 6, 10.

Proulx, G. 2001. "Highrise evacuation: a questionable concept" Second International Symposium on Human Behaviour in Fire, Boston, MA, pp. 221-230.

Proulx, G., 2002. Evacuation Planning for Occupants with Disability (Internal Report - National Research Council Canada, Institute for Research in Construction, no 843) 26 pp.

Proulx, G. 2002. "Cool under fire" Fire Protection Engineering no 16 pp. 33-35.

Proulx, G. 2002. "Movement of people: the evacuation timing" SFPE Handbook, Chapter 3-13, pp. 3-342- 3-366.

Proulx, G. 2002. "The Pros and cons of protect-in-place" Fire Australia 2002, Brisbane, Australia, 66 pp.

Proulx, G. 2003. "Playing with fire : why people linger in burning buildings" ASHRAE Journal, vol 45 no 7, July pp. 33-35.

Proulx, G., C. Laroche and J.C. Latour 2003. "Audibility problems with fire alarms in apartment buildings" The Ergonomics of Sound: Selections from Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meetings, 1985-2000, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Santa Monica, CA., pp. 28-32.

Proulx, G. 2004. "Evacuation by elevators: who goes first?" Workshop on Use of Elevators in Fires and Other Emergencies, Atlanta, Georgia, 13 pp.

Proulx, G., F.R. Fahy and A. Walker 2004. Analysis of First-Person Accounts from Survivors of the World Trade Centre Evacuation on September 11, 2001 (Research Report, National Research Council Canada, Institute for Research in Construction, no 178), 32 pp.

Proulx, G., I. Reid and N.R. Cavan 2004. Human Behavior Study, Cook County Administration Building Fire, October 17, 2003 Chicago, IL (Research Report - National Research Council Canada, Institute for Research in Construction, no 181) 92 pp.

Proulx, G. 2005. "In-depth analysis of World Trade Center disaster provides recommendations to improve fire safety in high-rise buildings" Construction Innovation, vol 10 no 4, December, p. 6.

Proulx, G. 2005. "IRC investigates fire that killed six office workers in Chicago" Construction Innovation vol 10 no 2, June, pp. 6-7.

Proulx, G. N.R. Cavan and R. Tonikian 2006 Egress Times From Single Family Houses (Research Report - National Research Council Canada, Institute for Research in Construction, no 209) 26 pp.

Proulx, G. and I. Reid 2006. "Occupant behavior and evacuation during the Chicago Cook County Administration Building fire" Journal of Fire Protection Engineering, vol 16 no 4, pp. 283-309.
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1042391506065951

Proulx, G. 2007. "Current research in human behavior in fire" [Podcast Interview] Campus Firewatch Radio May 01, 2007

Proulx, G. 2007. "High-rise office egress: the human factors" Symposium on High-Rise Building Egress Stairs, New York, N.Y.

Proulx, G. 2007. "Response to fire alarms" Fire Protection Engineering no 33, Winter, pp. 8-14.

Society for Fire Protection Engineering 2003. Human Behavior in Fire, Engineering Guide, 43 pp.

Fire Suppression Systems

Kim, A.K., B.C. Taber and G.D. Lougheed 1998. "Sprinkler protection of exterior glazing" Fire Technology, vol 34 no 2, pp. 116-138.

Kim, A.K. and J.Z. Su 1999. "Full-scale evaluation of halon replacement agents" Journal of Fire Protection Engineering, vol 10, no 2 pp. 1-23.

Kim, A.K. and G.P. Crampton 1999. "A Newly-developed fixed pipe compressed air foam fire suppression system" Proceedings of Fire Suppression and Detection Research Application Symposium, Orlando, Florida, pp. 329-339.

Kim, A.K. and G.P. Crampton 2000. "A New compressed-air-foam technology" Proceedings of Halon Options Technical Working Conference, Albuquerque, New Mexico, pp. 343-348.

Kim, A.K and G.P. Crampton 2001. "Application of a newly developed compressed-air-foam fire suppression system" Interflam 2001: 9th International Conference on Fire Science and Engineering, Edinburgh, Scotland, pp. 1219-1224.

Kim, A.K. and J.Z. Su 2004. "Thermal decomposition products from fire suppression with HFC-227ea in an electronic facility" Journal of Fire Protection Engineering vol 14 no 4 pp. 265-281.
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1042391504044161"

Kim, A.K., G.P. Crampton, Z.G. Liu, J.M. Kanabus-Kaminska and J.Z. Su 2005. "Explosion suppression in an occupied compartment" Symposium on Advances in Fire Suppression Technologies, San Diego, CA. pp. 57-63.

Kim, A.K. and G.P. Crampton 2005. "Water mist system for explosion protection of an armoured vehicle crew compartment" Fifth International Water Mist Conference, Berlin, Germany, 8 pp.

Liu, Z.G., A.K. Kim, D.W. Carpenter, J.M. Kanabus-Kaminska and P-L. Yen 2004. "Extinguishment of cooking oil fires by water mist fire suppression systems" Fire Technology, vol 40 no 4 pp. 309-333.
doi http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:FIRE.0000039161.18616.86

Su, J.Z. A.K. Kim, G.P. Crampton and Z.G. Liu 2001. "Fire suppression with inert gas agents" Journal of Fire Protection Engineering vol 11 no 2 pp. 72-87.

Case Study 1: Photoluminescent Material

Aizlewood, C. E. and G.M.B. Webber 1993. "Escape route lighting: comparison of human performance with traditional lighting and wayfinding systems" Lighting Research Technology vol 27 no 3, pp.133-143.

AJ Technical Database CI/SfB 1989. "Photoluminescent Safety: Light in Dark Places" August 9, pp. 63-64.

Amy, J. 2004. "The Path at your feet: The Shift in emergency lighting" International Fire Protection Magazine Issue 20.

Bénichou, N. and G. Proulx 2007. "Evaluation and comparison of different installations of photoluminescent marking in stairwells of a highrise building" Interflam 2007: 11th International Conference on Fire Science and Engineering, London, U.K.

Creak, J. 1995. "Hospital laundry gets a safe evacuation system" Facilities Management Journal vol 87 no 1077.

Dufour, B. 1999. "Aircraft Photoluminescent Floor Proximity Emergency Exit Path Marking System" Aircraft Certification Delegates Conference, Cornwall, Ont.

International Organization for Standardization,1987. Fire Protection – Safety Signs (ISO 6309)

Jensen, G. 1993. Evacuating in Smoke IGP AS Consulting Engineers.

Katz, R., A. Forst and J. Amy 1998. "Illuminating the way to safety" Journal of Healthcare Safety, Compliance & Infection Control vol 2 no 7.

Krokeide, G. 1988. "An Introduction to luminous escape systems" International Conference on Safety in the Built Environment, Portsmouth, England, pp. 134-147.

New York City Department of Building 2004. "Photoluminescent Exit Path Markings" (Local Law 26, Sect. 27-383(b). Building Code RS 6-1 and RS 6-1 A)

Peckham, G. 2005. "Photoluminescent directional egress path marking systems" Archi-Tech Magazine, Dec.

Proulx, G., D.K. Tiller, B. Kyle andJ. Creak. 1999, Assessment of Photoluminescent Material During Office Occupant Evacuation (Internal Report - National Research Council Canada, Institute for Research in Construction, no 774) 38 pp.

Proulx, G. 1999. "Photoluminescent material holds potential as alternative to emergency lighting, research finds" Construction Innovation, vol 4 no 4, Fall, pp. 6-7.

Proulx, G. B. Kyle and J. Creak 2000. "Effectiveness of a photoluminescent wayguidance system" Fire Technology vol 36 no 4 pp. 236-248.

Proulx, G.; N. Bénichou, J.K. Hum and K.N. Restivo 2007. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Different Photoluminescent Stairwell Installations for the Evacuation of Office Building Occupants (Research Report - National Research Council Canada, Institute for Research in Construction no 232) 77 pp.

Shipp, M, P. and G.M.B. Webber 1996. Review of Emergency Lighting and Way-Guidance Systems for Offshore Structures (Offshore Technology Report, Prepared by the Building Research Establishment for the Health and Safety Executive UK)

Tonikian, R., G. Proulx, N. Bénichou and I. Reid 2006. Literature Review on Photoluminescent Material Used as a Safety Wayguidance System (Research Report - National Research Council Canada, Institute for Research in Construction, no 214), 31 pp.

U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration 1997. Floor Proximity Emergency Escape Path Marking Systems Incorporating Photoluminescent Elements (Federal Aviation Regulation AC 25.812-2)

Webber, G. M. B., P. Hallman and A.C. Salvidge 1988. "Movement under emergency lighting: Comparison between standard provisions and photoluminescent markings" International Journal of Lighting Research and Technology vol 20 no 4, pp. 167-175.

Webber, G. M. B. and P.J. Hallamn 1989. Photoluminescent Markings for Escape Routes (Building Research Establishment Information Paper IP17/89)

Webber, G. M. B and C.E. Aizlewood 1994. Emergency Wayfinding Lighting Systems (Building Research Establishment Information Paper IP1/93)

Case Study 2: Sprinkler Protected Windows

Kim, A.K. and G.D. Lougheed 1990. "The Protection of glazing systems with dedicated sprinklers" Journal of Fire Protection Engineering vol 2 no 2 pp. 49-59.

Kim, A.K., B.C. Taber, B.C. and G.D. Lougheed 1998. "Sprinkler protection of exterior glazing" Fire Technology vol 34 no 2 pp. 116-138. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1015325418666